Please make an Appointment: +91-7508281399, +91-9592670953

Cervical Cancer – Causes, Symptoms, Risk and Treatment

Breast and Cervical cancer are the two most common types of cancers affecting women. Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells develop and spread in the cervix. Most cervical cancer cases are triggered by a type of virus. When found early, cervical cancer is highly curable. At Mohali IVF Centres every woman is counseled about the prevalence and prevention of cervical cancer.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

In early stages, when the cervical cells become abnormal, signs may not be observed. But when cancer progresses, then you may experience following signs and symptoms-

•    Unusual vaginal discharge
•    Vaginal bleeding between periods
•    Bleeding after menopause
•    Bleeding or pain during sex


Causes of Cervical Cancer

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a large group of viruses that cause Cervical Cancer in Women. The HPV detected today could have been acquired years ago. The cervix, vagina, and vulva can get infected from several different types of HPV.

Who Is at Risk for HPV?

HPV is so common that most people who have ever had sex — both women and men — will get the virus at some point in life. It’s possible to carry the infection even if it has been years since you had sex. Even though condoms can lower your risk of getting HPV, but they do not fully protect against the virus. HPV can also cause cancers of the vulva, vagina, and penis. HPV are also linked to anal and oral cancers in both male and female.

The risk is also higher in infected women who:

•    Smoke
•    Have many children
•    Use birth control pills for a long time
•    Are HIV positive or have a weakened immune system

One-fourth of the global cervical cancer cases are reported in India every year. In addition, an estimated 74,000 Indian women die annually from the disease. Many Indian women lack both awareness about the disease and access to prevention and treatment facilities.


Cervical Cancer Detection and Treatment

The Pap test is one of the great success stories in early detection. Sometimes, abnormal cervical cells can be observed, before cancer appears. So they can be treated before cancer develops. So, it is better to go for a Pap test after every three years, once you reach the age of 21 years. Women of higher age and at higher risk need to get the test done every year. Pap smear test is available at Jannee Fertility Centre at a very nominal price.

Treatment of patients suffering from this cancer may include one or more of the following:

•    Surgery
•    Radiation
•    Chemotherapy


Prevention is Better than Cure

Cervical cancer may be prevented by undergoing the regular Pap-Smear test and getting vaccinated against the disease. Vaccines are now available against HPV and are generally given in three doses over a six-month period. The vaccines are effective at preventing infections with the two types of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancers. However, it must be remembered that the vaccines are only used to prevent, not treat, HPV infection. If they are administered before an individual becomes sexually active, they become most effective. So, it is better for females of 9 to 45 years old to get vaccinated against the cervical cancer virus.

You can also visit our website Jannee Fertility Centre and follow us on Google Plus, Pinterest, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube for the latest blog on fertility issues. 

Twin Pregnancy through Oocyte Donation in a Woman of Advanced Reproductive Age


With advances in Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) a greater number of women are deciding to have a child and become a mother in their later years. Natural fertility rates decline with age, becoming dramatically apparent in women in their 40s and 50s. By the time of the perimenopause, pregnancy rarely occurs.

Oocyte donation is an integral part of modern assisted reproductive care and has been used as an aid for conception for young women with premature ovarian failure (POF). Currently, it is also being used to overcome the age-related decline in fertility.  A number of IVF treatment clinics use oocyte donation which reverses the age-related decline in implantation and birth rates in older women and restores pregnancy potential.

However, one of the principle concerns regarding this process is the incidence of obstetric and neonatal complications in older patients.

The Case

A 56-year-old woman a case of primary fertility and menopausal for 15 years and had undergone 7 IVF cycles at various clinics with no success reported to our clinic.

The woman was counseled about the success rate and age-related pregnancy complications during her first visit.

In her second visit with her husband extensive pre-cycle screening was done which included medical screening such as complete blood count, biochemistry, thyroid profile, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test (GTT), urinalysis, chest X-ray, coagulation parameters, PAP smear, and treadmill with echocardiography.

The reproductive screening was done which included transvaginal ultrasound, endometrial biopsy, and mock embryo transfer. The patient was also screened for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), venereal diseases, Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Preconceptual and psychosocial counseling was also given.

When all the test reports were normal then she was first given practice hormone replacement cycle of estrogen and progesterone. She was regularly monitored for endometrial thickness via transvaginal ultrasounds. An optimum 10.5mm of thickness was achieved on day 14 of the cycle. She was then given 100 IU/ml progesterone.

In the next cycle, she was given hormone replacement therapy with the same dose as in practice cycle. A young donor about 26 years of age was screened for oocyte donation for the patient.

7 viable eggs were retrieved from the donor and the husband’s sperm was injected using Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). When the 7 eggs fertilized and cleaved, 3 embryos were transferred.

Positive serum and urinary beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) diagnosed pregnancy after 14 days of embryo transfer. Progesterone pessary was given daily for the first 16 weeks of pregnancy. Also, estradiol valerate was given for endometrial regeneration for up to 16 weeks of pregnancy.

An ultrasound scan confirmed twin pregnancy. She delivered a female baby weighing 2.33 kg and a male baby weighing 2.65 kg through caesarean section at 30 weeks gestation.


Oocyte and embryo donation is an established standard of practice for the treatment of age-related infertility and is associated with high rates of pregnancy success. Prior to oocyte donation, adoption was the only way for couples to attain parenthood. Thanks to the advancement in technology now oocyte donation and low cost of IVF in India is a mode of therapy not only for infertile women but also for the ones who are at high risk for passing on genetic disorders.

However, obstetrical events and outcomes associated with advanced reproductive age can’t be overlooked. Women of advanced reproductive age considering oocyte or embryo donation should undergo complete medical testing.

Though oocyte donation–IVF has given hope and happiness to millions of couples across the globe yet the post conception complications both physical and emotional cannot be ignored at a high maternal age.

In summary, IVF±ICSI using oocyte donation is highly successful. Increased pregnancy rate and a number of stimulated cycles required for pregnancy are important figures which can be used to inform women seeking pregnancy via IVF and oocyte donation. Although it is reassuring to postmenopausal women that their chances of conceiving and having a baby are excellent, it is also important that IVF treatment clinics counsel the patient about the higher rates of minor and major complications involved.

You can also visit our website Jannee Fertility Centre and follow us on Google Plus, Pinterest, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube for the latest blog on fertility issues. 

6 Low-Cost IVF Treatments That You May Not Know About

IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) is a manual process of fertilization which is usually adopted by females looking for assistance to conceive. Infertility is increasing these days due to the lifestyle being adopted by the couples these days. The reasons can be traced easily in both males and females. Fertility treatments tend to be the best way to sort the problem being faced by the couples. Most patients from countries like UK, USA, UAE, and Australia travel to India for infertility treatment because India offers low-cost options of IVF for NRI couples.


A noteworthy obstacle for some couples considering IVF is the cost. Here are few choices you may not know about which would help with the expense of IVF treatment.


Find an Infertility Clinic that Does Shared IVF Cycles


A shared IVF cycle is the one where two women go through the first part of the IVF process at the same time. One female donates some of her eggs to another female who cannot use her own eggs in exchange for a reduced rate determined by the fertility clinic. You can save up to fifty percent on your IVF cost in this way.


  • IVF Research Trials for Inexpensive Treatment


Some infertility facilities have IVF exploration or treatment trials that give IVF subsidies due to which the cost of the treatment lowers down. Research online for such type of facilities and check whether there are any you fit the bill for. You will have to do your assessment, on the IVF centre to ensure that it is respectable, in addition, look at the office to ensure that the staff is good and the rooms and equipment are perfect. An IVF trial will be reasonable, and you might even get a free IVF treatment. For free treatment, some criteria’s are set by the clinics.


  • Find Sterility Clinic that does Shared Donor Egg Cycle


The shared donor egg program can reduce the cost of IVF treatment up to 50% or can be combined with shared risk refund program for the same cost as a single traditional donor egg cycle. With a shared egg donor cycle, two or three women share eggs from a donor and also share in the cost of the IVF treatment.


  • Consider Undergoing IVF Treatment in India


IVF costs outside the developed countries can be considerably low. IVF treatment is inexpensive in many countries, including India. Costs can be as low as $ 6,000 and there are excellent doctors, facilities, and treatments. However, you need to do the research to determine exactly what is covered in the price of the treatment, as well as take into consideration the cost of travel and lodging.


  • Consider Mini IVF


The difference between mini IVF and conventional IVF, is the drug and hormone regime that take place first. Low doses of fertility drugs are used for ovary stimulation. With mini-IVF, less but good quality eggs are produced. The rest of the process is same where the woman is monitored throughout the drug regime process; egg retrieval, embryo fertilization, and embryo transfer all takes place as the conventional IVF method. The cost of this mini IVF is significantly lower.


  • Check your Insurance Plan for Fertility Treatment Cost Coverage


Check to see if your insurance company covers the cost of fertility treatments. Some insurance companies cover some if not all of in-vitro fertilization treatment. Some countries have the provision which requires the insurance companies to have some sort of IVF coverage, usually in the form of infertility diagnosis and treatment.


low costs of ivf in india


We hope this has given you a starting point in finding ways to make IVF treatment affordable for you. There are low costs of IVF in India options, you just need to know where to look and find the option that works best for you.


IVF Chandigarh

IVF Chandigarh