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Genital Tuberculosis – A Reason For Infertility Among Women

Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem throughout the world affecting about 9.4 million people annually with about two million deaths. Over 95 % of new TB cases and deaths occur in developing countries with India and China together accounting for 40 % of the world’s TB burden.

Tuberculosis infection doesn’t always remain restricted to the lungs but can also travel to other parts of the body such as bones, joints, urinary tract and genital tract, etc. If it reaches the genital areas of a woman, it could lead to infertility. In developing countries like India Genital tract tuberculosis is identified as an important cause of infertility.

 

In such cases, IVF treatment from IVF centre becomes a ray of hope. Genital TB mainly affects females in the reproductive age group, but it is also reported in post-menopausal females.

How Genital Tuberculosis infection affects women’s chances of getting pregnant?

How Genital Tuberculosis infection affects women’s chances of getting pregnant?

 

  • When tuberculosis infection affects fallopian tubes, it may cause obstruction or dysfunction. This prevents the entry of fertilized egg into the uterus from tubes.
  • On the other hand, if bacteria erode lining of endometrium, it will become difficult for the fertilized egg to implant itself on uterus wall and hence again averting pregnancy.
  • Infection in the ovaries would affect quality of ovum or lead to failure in ovulation.
  • Infection in the cervix, vagina or vulva could also make chances of pregnancy bleak.

 

What are the symptoms of Genital tuberculosis?

 

Genital tuberculosis doesn’t show any visible symptoms usually. If a woman has suffered from pulmonary TB in the past then it can show following signs which can indicate sub-fertility.

 

  • Irregularity in menstrual cycles such as suffering from scanty or heavy periods
  • Pain and heaviness in the pelvic area
  • Cysts in pelvic area

 

How can Genital Tuberculosis be diagnosed?

Female Genital TB is usually asymptomatic and hence gets diagnosed when a female presents with infertility and all other causes have been ruled out. Some tests used for diagnosis are:

  1. endometrial biopsy
  2. culture of menstrual flow and laparoscopy
  3. polymerase chain reaction for the specific bacteria
  4. hysterosalpingographic study (HSG)

 

Treatment for Genital Tuberculosis

Usually treatment is by giving daily therapy of rifampicin (R), isoniazid (H), pyrazinamide (Z) and ethambutol (E) for 2 months followed by daily 4 month therapy of rifampicin (R) and isoniazid (H). 

Treatment for Genital Tuberculosis

Anti Tuberculosis Treatment (ATT) has an excellent recovery/cure rate, so patients should not lose hope after being diagnosed with the disease. 

Treatment must be given by an experienced physician and self medication is to be strictly avoided.

Post ATT treatment IVF-ET helps conceive if the endometrium of the patient is still healthy. However, if endometrium has been affected due to TB then adoption and surrogacy are the only options left. Best infertility clinic in Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali provide test tube baby treatment and surrogacy to such patients.

 

You can also visit our website Jannee Fertility Centre and follow us on Google Plus, Pinterest, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube for the latest blog on fertility issues. 

Make Healthy Choices to Enhance Your Chances Of Conceiving

Fertility problems have increased dramatically over the past twenty years. One in every six couples has difficulty achieving pregnancy and a quarter of all pregnancies end up in a miscarriage. Due to this, more and more couples nowadays are turning to fertility treatments. Best IVF treatment in Chandigarh is here to help you have a new family.

 

Infertility may be due to tubal damage, ovulatory dysfunction, endometriosis, low/nil sperm count, etc. However, in about 20% of infertility cases the cause of infertility may be unknown. This is known as “Unexplained Infertility”. Here, the need arises to look deeper at lifestyle factors and nutritional deficiencies.

 

Pre conception care –

Primordial sperm cells take at least three months to develop into a mature sperm. This means you need to have a three-month period before conceiving when you are trying to improve your fertility. This is called pre-conception period. Hormonal imbalances, detoxification of body, overcoming nutritional deficiencies- all of this can be achieved within this 3 to 6 month window prior to getting pregnant. So, you and your partner must embrace some lifestyle changes during this phase in order to achieve conception.

 

Choices to increase chances of conceiving:

Healthy diet to correct hormone imbalances –

Both you and your partner should follow a healthy diet in order to have a successful pregnancy. Healthy diet can help you correct hormone imbalances and improve sperm quality that may affect your ability to conceive.

 

Alcohol affects sperm health –

Drinking alcohol can reduce your fertility by half. Research has shown that drinking alcohol affects sperm health such as it causes a decrease in sperm count and an increase in abnormal sperm. So, it is better to stop drinking alcohol. If you are also suffering from male infertility problem, then you can go for IVF treatment in Chandigarh as the cost of IVF in Chandigarh is affordable.

 

Caffeine reduces fertility –

Research has shown that caffeine (particularly in the form of coffee) reduces fertility. So it is better to eliminate all caffeine-containing food and drinks including colas, chocolate, black teas and coffee for at least three months (preconception care).

 

Eliminate xenoestrogens with organic produce –

The most important thing which you need to do is to balance your hormones. During preconception period, you must avoid anything that might cause an imbalance. One such major culprit is the xenoestrogens. Eat as much organic produce as possible in order to eliminate an excess intake of xenoestrogens.

 

Smoking decreases sperm count –

Smoking affects fertility in women and can even bring on an early menopause. In males, it can decrease sperm count, making the sperm more sluggish. It even leads to decreased motility and DNA damage in sperms.

 

Exercise regime –

Start a moderate exercise regime to improve the blood flow through your body, especially your reproductive organs. Walk, yoga or moderate work out at the gym is recommended.

You can also visit our website Jannee Fertility Centre and follow us on Google Plus, Pinterest, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube for the latest blog on fertility issues. 

Basic Infertility Work-Up of an Infertile Couple

Couples often don’t know what to expect when they meet with their fertility specialist for the initial consult. Your doctor will recommend a diagnostic plan or infertility work-up to you. Infertility workup involves a counselling session, followed by a series of comprehensive & detailed tests which are essential to determine causes of infertility. This helps to decide which treatment option would be the most suitable for a particular couple. Mohali IVF centres pay special attention on the initial workup for an infertile couple and help them to select right kind of fertility treatment.

 

Male work up-

 

History

A man can expect to be queried about his family history. He will be asked whether he has ever undergone genital or prostate surgery, if he finds it difficult to achieve an erection, the nature of job he is doing, whether his job involves exposure to dangerous chemicals and if he is suffering from any chronic health problem.

 

Physical exam-

Physical exam of the genitals and prostate is then done to check for any abnormalities that are affecting the sperm production or release.

 

Blood tests-

Your doctor will recommend a series of blood tests to screen for conditions that might be affecting your fertility. These tests may include hormonal levels, sugar levels, viral markers, etc.

 

Semen analysis-
To determine the quality & quantity of sperm, semen analysis is done. It also helps to detect any morphological abnormalities in the semen sample.

 

Female work up-

 

History-

A woman can expect to be questioned about her medical and menstrual history. This may include questions about regularity of menstrual cycle, abdominal surgeries, prior conceptions/miscarriages, any kind of gynaecological ailment such as endometriosis/ pelvic inflammatory disease, etc.

 

Physical Examination & Ultrasound-

The doctor will perform a physical exam during which he or she will do a pelvic exam and look for certain characteristics such as excess hair growth. The physician may also examine your breasts to see whether they leak any fluid or not.

 

Blood tests-
Fertility assessment also involves a series of tests which include thyroid gland function, prolactin levels, sugar levels, etc

 

Day three assessment-
Between the second and fourth day of your period, a hormone assessment test is done. This cluster of tests is done to check hormone levels such as FSH, LH and E2 hormones.

 

Mid-luteal progesterone level-

If the results of day three assessment are normal, and your doctor is still in doubt whether you are ovulating or not, then he will recommend an additional blood test to measure progesterone levels as well.

 

Other tests-

If neither egg nor sperm production appears to be the problem, then it is possible that your partner’s sperms are running into a roadblock in the fallopian tube. If this is the case, then there are three different types of tests which can be used to determine absence/blockage of tubes. These tests include hysterosalpingogram (HSG), Sono histogram (SHSG) and diagnostic laparoscopy.

 

What happens after a work-up?

Fertility specialist will help you zero down on the most suitable infertility treatment according to your work-up. Many patients achieve a pregnancy just by taking medication which boosts egg and sperm production in both the partners. However, others may need to undergo more invasive and expensive procedures like IUI, IVF and ICSI as they are commonly used for unexplained infertility. There are some fertility centres in India where you can get low-cost IVF treatment.

You can also visit our website Jannee Fertility Centre and follow us on Google Plus, Pinterest, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube for the latest blog on fertility issues. 

IVF Chandigarh

IVF Chandigarh